Police Misconduct Case: Any case that involves the wrongdoing of Police. For example: False Arrest, Brutality etc. 

False Arrest: This occurs either when an officer has no reason to arrest he/she or he/she was framed(Officers made up evidence). Technically speaking, he/she have to be involved in a case to be arrested. However, officers can sometimes make up evidence that you were somehow involved, giving the officers the power to arrest you.

Excessive Force Cases: A police case that involves police brutality or more forces than necessary. Despite being able to use deadly force, sometimes officers misuse their authority. For example: An officer getting sued for tasering a woman while speeding down a highway would be an excessive force case. 

Malicious Prosecution: Similar to false arrest. The officer arrests a normal citizen for no apparent reason. The officer then finds someone to file a criminal complaint against that particular person. Malicious Prosecution also falls under the category of "Aggravated Battery." Aggravated Battery means an officer tries to strike a citizen, that citizen blocks the officer shot and sends one of his own. The officer can then charge the citizen with "Striking an Officer."